Blog Update

I’ve been writing a blog post every day for over three years. Most of those posts covered research in biology and medicine. I’m currently taking a break from blogging. I’m planning on switching to a new format for my site that focuses on longer pages that discuss physiological systems or organs or classes of pharmaceuticals. I’ll probably focus on essays or other long form writing instead of trying to update a blog every day. Suggestions are welcome on what you would like me to write about. You can email me at

Longevity and Perfection

As long as people continue to die, it doesn’t matter whether they die at age one or at age one hundred. It’s a tragedy when a baby dies in infancy, but it would also be a tragedy if they died in old age. Death means that all the time people invest in themselves and their families is ultimately pointless. Even if a person is remembered in a positive way, it doesn’t matter to the person who dies, since that individual will still be dead. Life is pointless and meaningless as long as everyone dies in the end anyway.

Thinking death is good or even acceptable simply because it’s natural is the naturalistic fallacy in action. Rape is natural, but it’s still bad and people are working to end sexual violence. Aging and death are the same way. I have anxiety disorders and live in fear of death, so those who think anti-aging research is unnecessary are ableist against people afflicted with anxiety. Another reason people accept death is due to their religious beliefs. Even if people are religious, they still need to be concerned that they could be following the wrong religion and running the risk of ending up in hell as a result. Therefore it’s good to pursue life extension as a backup plan.

Life needs to involve an obsession with perfectly predicting the future, which is very difficult and maybe even impossible. Why is it so important to predict the future? America lacks sufficient social safety nets and has a culture of judgment and blame. This means people have to be able to predict the future with perfect accuracy. Even though the lives of people are controlled by corporations and governments and powerful individuals, the average person is still expected to take “personal responsibility” for everything single thing that happens to him or her. If you make a big mistake, people will say that it’s entirely your fault and that you deserve to suffer. The widespread belief in the myth of free will and the religion of personal responsibility leads many Americans to think the individual is entirely responsible for any negative outcome that happens to him or her. Just look at most comments on the web where people make the mistake of trying to ask for help. Some Americans combine the worst of both worlds, holding opinions that are both cruel and illogical. People seem to think that if a person gets sick, experiences financial difficulties, gets the wrong degree, has emotional problems, marries the wrong person, etc – it’s entirely that individual’s fault and they deserve to suffer alone.

Even worse, those types of people seem to have power to decide which people can get jobs and healthcare. A possible outcome might go like this: get sick -> can’t work -> lose job -> lose health insurance -> can’t get healthcare -> can’t get another job -> go bankrupt -> get sicker -> die. I take around forty supplement pills a day, not only because I live in fear of death every day since no one knows for sure what happens after death, but also because sickness can lead to a ruined life via the pathway outlined above. I feel guilty whenever I have fun instead of spending time reading medical journals and finding biomedical studies with predictive power.

There are also violent people with animal urges who still roam free. People with a biological propensity towards violence can’t be arrested until they actually commit a crime, so the only thing to do is hope you aren’t the first victim when their psychopathy manifests itself. Until everyone’s brains are scanned to identify neurological correlates of violent behavior, there are plenty of violent people who are ticking time bombs just walking around. It’s not just a gun control problem. These violent people can find lots of inventive ways to kill someone, especially if they rise to positions of power.

Life extension can give meaning to human life. If life expectancy can be extended indefinitely, life will finally mean something because a person can continue to exist. Changing brain chemistry to generate feelings of meaning in life is another potential solution.

Amygdala Drug Effects

The following medications and compounds reduce activity in the human amygdala. This indicates they are useful in treating anxiety disorders.











Altered affective response in marijuana smokers: an FMRI study.

Amygdala volume reductions in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with paroxetine: preliminary findings.

D-cycloserine inhibits amygdala responses during repeated presentations of faces.

Distinct effects of {delta}9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing.

Dose-dependent decrease of activation in bilateral amygdala and insula by lorazepam during emotion processing.

Effects of alcohol on brain responses to social signals of threat in humans.

Effects of diazepam on BOLD activation during the processing of aversive faces.

Escitalopram effects on insula and amygdala BOLD activation during emotional processing.

Human amygdala reactivity is diminished by the β-noradrenergic antagonist propranolol.

Modulation of effective connectivity during emotional processing by Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol.

Pregabalin influences insula and amygdala activation during anticipation of emotional images.


Studies from the field of nutrigenomics show that the following foods lead to beneficial genetic changes



Green Tea

Mediterranean Diet

Olive Oil

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Orange Juice

Tomato Extract



An antiinflammatory dietary mix modulates inflammation and oxidative and metabolic stress in overweight men: a nutrigenomics approach.

Characterization of human gene expression changes after olive oil ingestion: an exploratory approach.

Effects of cocoa extract and dark chocolate on angiotensin-converting enzyme and nitric oxide in human endothelial cells and healthy volunteers–a nutrigenomics perspective.

Hesperidin displays relevant role in the nutrigenomic effect of orange juice on blood leukocytes in human volunteers: a randomized controlled cross-over study.

In vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgin olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet: a randomized controlled trial.

In vivo transcriptomic profile after a Mediterranean diet in high-cardiovascular risk patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Mononuclear cell transcriptome response after sustained virgin olive oil consumption in humans: an exploratory nutrigenomics study.

Nutrigenomic studies of effects of Chlorella on subjects with high-risk factors for lifestyle-related disease.

Nutrigenomics approach elucidates health-promoting effects of high vegetable intake in lean and obese men.

Time course of changes in the expression of insulin sensitivity-related genes after an acute load of virgin olive oil.

Skin Rejuvenation

These nutraceuticals have proven successful in rejuvenating skin in lab animal experiments:


coenzyme Q10

green tea



soy phospholipids


Beneficial effects of pro-/antioxidant-based nutraceuticals in the skin rejuvenation techniques.

Green tea and red light–a powerful duo in skin rejuvenation.

Rejuvenating activity of salidroside (SDS): dietary intake of SDS enhances the immune response of aged rats.

Food and Hair

These foods and compounds increase hair growth or improve hair in lab animals:

apple procyanidin

choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid

dietary isoflavones

polyunsaturated fatty acids


Dietary isoflavone increases insulin-like growth factor-I production, thereby promoting hair growth in mice.

Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on hair tensile strength and morphology in women with fine hair.

Investigation of topical application of procyanidin B-2 from apple to identify its potential use as a hair growing agent.

Skin surface lipids and skin and hair coat condition in dogs fed increased total fat diets containing polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Treatments

Animal experiments indicate there are some promising potential treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. While there’s no true cure for ALS yet, some of these experiments show that new compounds and natural substances can treat symptoms and extend lifespan.

They include:

3-4 diaminopyridine




Activated Protein C

AEOL 10150



Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate




Bee Venom

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester


Caprylic Triglyceride












Diallyl Trisulfide








EGb761 (Gingko Biloba Extract)


Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)



Folic Acid



Ginseng Root


Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor

GSK-3 inhibitor VIII

Heat Shock Protein 70

Hepatocyte Growth Factor


Iron Porphyrin


Jiawei Sijunzi (JWSJZ)





Lipoic Acid


Manganese Porphyrin



Methionine Sulfoximine

Milk Whey Proteins




Oxidized Galectin-1





Polyamine-Modified Catalase





Recombinant Human Erythropoietin

Recombinant Human Insulinlike Growth Factor-I (rhIGF-I)



Ro 28-2653

RPR 119990

S-adenosyl Methionine


Scolopendra Subspinipes Mutilans



Sodium Phenylbutyrate

Suppressor Factor


TAT-modified Bcl-X(L)



Trichostatin A




Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor


Vitamin D3

Vitamin E



ZK 187638


A dopamine receptor antagonist L-745,870 suppresses microglia activation in spinal cord and mitigates the progression in ALS model mice.

A double-blind study of the effectiveness of cyclosporine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

A phase II trial of talampanel in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

A pilot trial of memantine and riluzole in ALS: correlation to CSF biomarkers.

Activated protein C therapy slows ALS-like disease in mice by transcriptionally inhibiting SOD1 in motor neurons and microglia cells.

Additive neuroprotective effects of a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a catalytic antioxidant in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

AM1241, a cannabinoid CB2 receptor selective compound, delays disease progression in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate delays onset, prolongs survival, and slows progression of disease in a mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: delayed disease progression in mice by treatment with a cannabinoid.

An ALS mouse model with a permeable blood-brain barrier benefits from systemic cyclosporine A treatment.

An attempt to inhibit the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by suppressor factor.

Autophagy activation and neuroprotection by progesterone in the G93A-SOD1 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Bee venom attenuates neuroinflammatory events and extends survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis models.

Beneficial effect of ginseng root in SOD-1 (G93A) transgenic mice.

Benefit of a combined treatment with trientine and ascorbate in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice.

Benefit of tianeptine and morphine in a transgenic model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

c-Abl inhibition delays motor neuron degeneration in the G93A mouse, an animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester extends survival of a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Cannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival.

Caprylic triglyceride as a novel therapeutic approach to effectively improve the performance and attenuate the symptoms due to the motor neuron loss in ALS disease.

Celastrol blocks neuronal cell death and extends life in transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Chemotherapy delays progression of motor neuron disease in the SOD1 G93A transgenic mouse.

Colivelin prolongs survival of an ALS model mouse.

Combined riluzole and sodium phenylbutyrate therapy in transgenic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice.

Control of motoneuron survival by angiogenin.

Death receptor 6 (DR6) antagonist antibody is neuroprotective in the mouse SOD1(G93A) model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Dexpramipexole effects on functional decline and survival in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a Phase II study: subgroup analysis of demographic and clinical characteristics.

Dietary supplementation with S-adenosyl methionine delays the onset of motor neuron pathology in a murine model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Dietary vitamin D3 supplementation at 10× the adequate intake improves functional capacity in the G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS, a pilot study.

Dihydrotestosterone ameliorates degeneration in muscle, axons and motoneurons and improves motor function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice.

Dimebon slows progression of proteinopathy in γ-synuclein transgenic mice.

DL-3-n-butylphthalide extends survival by attenuating glial activation in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Effect of nutritional supplementation with milk whey proteins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

Effect of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I on progression of ALS. A placebo-controlled study. The North America ALS/IGF-I Study Group.

Effect of sex on lifespan, disease progression, and the response to methionine sulfoximine in the SOD1 G93A mouse model for ALS.

Effects of 3-4 diaminopyridine (DAP) in motor neuron diseases.

Effects of an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, desmethylselegiline, trientine, and lipoic acid in transgenic ALS mice.

Exendin-4 ameliorates motor neuron degeneration in cellular and animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Exogenous delivery of heat shock protein 70 increases lifespan in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Fasudil, a rho kinase inhibitor, limits motor neuron loss in experimental models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Folic acid protects motor neurons against the increased homocysteine, inflammation and apoptosis in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice.

Galactooligosaccharide improves the animal survival and alleviates motor neuron death in SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Gemals, a new drug candidate, extends lifespan and improves electromyographic parameters in a rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Glutamate AMPA receptors change in motor neurons of SOD1G93A transgenic mice and their inhibition by a noncompetitive antagonist ameliorates the progression of amytrophic lateral sclerosis-like disease.

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor attenuates inflammation in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor improves outcome in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Identification and characterization of cholest-4-en-3-one, oxime (TRO19622), a novel drug candidate for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 suppresses the onset of symptoms and disease progression of G93A-SOD1 mouse model of ALS.

Inhibition of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase activation and mutant SOD1(G93A)-induced motor neuron death.

Intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E reduces the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Intracerebroventricular infusion of monoclonal antibody or its derived Fab fragment against misfolded forms of SOD1 mutant delays mortality in a mouse model of ALS.

Intrathecal cyclosporin prolongs survival of late-stage ALS mice.

Intrathecal delivery of hepatocyte growth factor from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis onset suppresses disease progression in rat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model.

Investigation of the therapeutic effects of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Phase II study).

Iron porphyrin treatment extends survival in a transgenic animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Ivermectin inhibits AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in cultured motor neurons and extends the life span of a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Late stage treatment with arimoclomol delays disease progression and prevents protein aggregation in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS.

Lead exposure stimulates VEGF expression in the spinal cord and extends survival in a mouse model of ALS.

Lenalidomide (Revlimid) administration at symptom onset is neuroprotective in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Life span extension and reduced neuronal death after weekly intraventricular cyclosporin injections in the G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Manganese porphyrin given at symptom onset markedly extends survival of ALS mice.

Mechano-growth factor, an IGF-I splice variant, rescues motoneurons and improves muscle function in SOD1(G93A) mice.

Melatonin inhibits the caspase-1/cytochrome c/caspase-3 cell death pathway, inhibits MT1 receptor loss and delays disease progression in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Memantine prolongs survival in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model.

Methionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, lowers brain glutamine and glutamate in a mouse model of ALS.

Modulation of astrocytic mitochondrial function by dichloroacetate improves survival and motor performance in inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Motor neuronal protection by L-arginine prolongs survival of mutant SOD1 (G93A) ALS mice.

MRS study of the effects of minocycline on markers of neuronal and microglial integrity in ALS.

Muscle-derived but not centrally derived transgene GDNF is neuroprotective in G93A-SOD1 mouse model of ALS.

N-acetyl-L-cysteine improves survival and preserves motor performance in an animal model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

NAP (davunetide) modifies disease progression in a mouse model of severe neurodegeneration: protection against impairments in axonal transport.

Neurochemical correlates of differential neuroprotection by long-term dietary creatine supplementation.

Neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of novel multimodal iron-chelating drugs in motor-neuron-like NSC-34 cells and transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Neuroprotective effect of oxidized galectin-1 in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Neuroprotective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Neuroprotective effects of creatine in a transgenic animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Neuroprotective effects of diallyl trisulfide in SOD1-G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Neuroprotective effects of the Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) agonist PRE-084, in a mouse model of motor neuron disease not linked to SOD1 mutation.

Neuroprotective efficacy of aminopropyl carbazoles in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Nortriptyline delays disease onset in models of chronic neurodegeneration.

Novel telomerase-increasing compound in mouse brain delays the onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Olesoxime delays muscle denervation, astrogliosis, microglial activation and motoneuron death in an ALS mouse model.

Open Randomized Clinical Trial on JWSJZ Decoction for the Treatment of ALS Patients.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist extends survival in transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Preliminary investigation of effect of granulocyte colony stimulating factor on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Prevention of motor neuron degeneration by novel iron chelators in SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Pyruvate slows disease progression in a G93A SOD1 mutant transgenic mouse model.

Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of acetyl-L-carnitine for ALS.

Rasagiline alone and in combination with riluzole prolongs survival in an ALS mouse model.

Recombinant human erythropoietin suppresses symptom onset and progression of G93A-SOD1 mouse model of ALS by preventing motor neuron death and inflammation.

Reduced oxidative damage in ALS by high-dose enteral melatonin treatment.

Regenerative therapies for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using hepatocyte growth factor.

Resveratrol upregulated heat shock proteins and extended the survival of G93A-SOD1 mice.

RPR 119990, a novel alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid antagonist: synthesis, pharmacological properties, and activity in an animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

S[+] Apomorphine is a CNS penetrating activator of the Nrf2-ARE pathway with activity in mouse and patient fibroblast models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Safety, tolerability and pharmacodynamics of a skeletal muscle activator in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans attenuates neuroinflammation in symptomatic hSOD1G93A mice.

Selective up-regulation of the glial Na+-dependent glutamate transporter GLT1 by a neuroimmunophilin ligand results in neuroprotection.

Sigma-1R agonist improves motor function and motoneuron survival in ALS mice.

SK-PC-B70M alleviates neurologic symptoms in G93A-SOD1 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice.

Tempol moderately extends survival in a hSOD1(G93A) ALS rat model by inhibiting neuronal cell loss, oxidative damage and levels of non-native hSOD1(G93A) forms.

The CB2 cannabinoid agonist AM-1241 prolongs survival in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis when initiated at symptom onset.

The Chinese prescription Wen-Pi-Tang extract delays disease onset in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice while attenuating the activation of glial cells in the spinal cord.

The copper chelator d-penicillamine delays onset of disease and extends survival in a transgenic mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

The effect of epigallocatechin gallate on suppressing disease progression of ALS model mice.

The lipophilic metal chelators DP-109 and DP-460 are neuroprotective in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

The matrix metalloproteinases inhibitor Ro 28-2653 [correction of Ro 26-2853] extends survival in transgenic ALS mice.

The oral antidiabetic pioglitazone protects from neurodegeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like symptoms in superoxide dismutase-G93A transgenic mice.

The serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan delays neuromuscular disease in murine familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Therapeutic benefit of polyamine-modified catalase as a scavenger of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis transgenics.

Therapeutic benefits of intrathecal protein therapy in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Therapeutic effects of clenbuterol in a murine model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Therapeutic effects of dl-3-n-butylphthalide in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Therapeutic efficacy of EGb761 (Gingko biloba extract) in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with ribonucleotides.

Treatment with arimoclomol, a coinducer of heat shock proteins, delays disease progression in ALS mice.

Treatment with edaravone, initiated at symptom onset, slows motor decline and decreases SOD1 deposition in ALS mice.

Treatment with trichostatin A initiated after disease onset delays disease progression and increases survival in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Uridine ameliorates the pathological phenotype in transgenic G93A-ALS mice.

Vascular endothelial growth factor prolongs survival in a transgenic mouse model of ALS.

VEGF delivery with retrogradely transported lentivector prolongs survival in a mouse ALS model.

Vitamin D deficiency and its supplementation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Vitamin E intake and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a pooled analysis of data from 5 prospective cohort studies.

Vitamin E intake and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Vitamin E serum levels and controlled supplementation and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.