The human brain is not a blank slate. The brain and personality traits associated with its structure already reach an impressive level of sophistication even before birth. With this development comes a pre-programmed set of instructions. These studies provide some examples of how the infant brain predicts personality years later.
Childhood socioeconomic status and adult brain size: childhood socioeconomic status influences adult hippocampal size. (Link)
Larger amygdala but no change in hippocampal volume in 10-year-old children exposed to maternal depressive symptomatology since birth. (Link)
Neonatal head ultrasound abnormalities in preterm infants and adolescent psychiatric disorders. (Link)
Structural differences in adult orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex predicted by infant temperament at 4 months of age. (Link)