The Neuroscience of Extraversion and Introversion

The personality traits extraversion and introversion have been measured in different ways, including the continuum of extraversion<->introversion on the five factor model of personality. Whether someone is outgoing or reserved, or whether they are energized or drained by social interactions, is determined by neuroanatomy and neurochemistry. Personality is embedded in the structure of the brain.

These studies describe the neuroscientific basis of the extraversion/introversion continuum:

• Acquired extroversion associated with bitemporal variant of frontotemporal dementia. (Link)

• Amygdala gray matter concentration is associated with extraversion and neuroticism. (Link)

• An event-related potential analysis of extraversion and individual differences in cognitive processing speed and response execution. (Link)

• An fMRI study of personality influences on brain reactivity to emotional stimuli. (Link)

• Antero-posterior EEG spectral power gradient as a correlate of extraversion and behavioral inhibition. (Link)

• Association between reduced extraversion and right posterior fusiform gyrus gray matter reduction in chronic schizophrenia. (Link)

• Attention and emotion influence the relationship between extraversion and neural response. (Link)

• Auditory P3 indexes personality traits and cognitive function in healthy men and women. (Link)

• Automatic brain response to facial emotion as a function of implicitly and explicitly measured extraversion. (Link)

• Biological correlates of P300 and extraversion relationship. (Link)

• Brain biochemistry and personality: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. (Link)

• Cerebral blood flow and personality: a positron emission tomography study. (Link)

• Changes in N1 and P3 components of the auditory event-related potentials in extroverts and introverts depending on the type of the task. (Link)

• Cognitive and behavioral profile in a case of right anterior temporal lobe neurodegeneration. (Link)

• Correlation between extraversion and regional cerebral blood flow in response to olfactory stimuli. (Link)

• Critical examination of a correlation between brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations and a personality trait of extroversion in healthy volunteers as measured by a 3 Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. (Link)

• Differences in regional brain volume related to the extraversion-introversion dimension–a voxel based morphometry study. (Link)

• Do extraverts process social stimuli differently from introverts? (Link)

• Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in Mexican Americans: Relationship to alcohol dependence and personality traits. (Link)

• Energetical bases of extraversion: effort, arousal, EEG, and performance. (Link)

• Event-related desynchronization in the EEG during emotional and cognitive information processing: differential effects of extraversion. (Link)

• Event-related potential correlates of the extraverts’ sensitivity to valence changes in positive stimuli. (Link)

• Extraversion and cortical activation during memory performance. (Link)

• Extraversion and fronto-posterior EEG spectral power gradient: an independent component analysis. (Link)

• Extraversion and its positive emotional core–further evidence from neuroscience. (Link)

• Extraversion and striatal dopaminergic receptor availability in young adults: an [¹⁸F]fallypride PET study. (Link)

• Extraversion is linked to volume of the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. (Link)

• Extraversion-related differences in response organization: evidence from lateralized readiness potentials. (Link)

• Extroversion-related differences in speed of premotor and motor processing as revealed by lateralized readiness potentials. (Link)

• Functional connectivity with the anterior cingulate is associated with extraversion during the emotional Stroop task. (Link)

• Individual differences in extraversion and dopamine genetics predict neural reward responses. (Link)

• Is cortical distribution of spectral power a stable individual characteristic? (Link)

• Neural basis of interpersonal traits in neurodegenerative diseases. (Link)

• Neural correlates of personality dimensions and affective measures during the anticipation of emotional stimuli. (Link)

• Neural mechanisms underlying the higher levels of subjective well-being in extraverts: pleasant bias and unpleasant resistance. (Link)

• Neuroanatomical correlates of extraversion and neuroticism. (Link)

• Neuroanatomical correlates of personality in the elderly. (Link)

• Neuroanatomical profiles of personality change in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. (Link)

• Neurofunctional correlates of personality traits in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: an fMRI study. (Link)

• NMDA receptor activity and the transmission of sensory input into motor output in introverts and extraverts. (Link)

• Orbitofrontal thickness, retention of fear extinction, and extraversion. (Link)

• Parameters of the spatial of organization of EEG in persons with various individual characteristics. (Link)

• Personality factors correlate with regional cerebral perfusion. (Link)

• Personality from a controlled processing perspective: an fMRI study of neuroticism, extraversion, and self-consciousness. (Link)

• Personality influences limbic-cortical interactions during sad mood induction. (Link)

• Personality is reflected in the brain’s intrinsic functional architecture. (Link)

• Personality modulates the effects of emotional arousal and valence on brain activation. (Link)

• Personality predicts activity in reward and emotional regions associated with humor. (Link)

• Personality traits and its association with resting regional brain activity. (Link)

• Personality traits and the amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency oscillations during resting state. (Link)

• Personality-dependent dissociation of absolute and relative loss processing in orbitofrontal cortex. (Link)

• Personality, gender and brain oscillations. (Link)

• Prefrontal cortex glutamate and extraversion. (Link)

• Regional cerebral brain metabolism correlates of neuroticism and extraversion. (Link)

• Relationship between CNV asymmetries and individual differences in cognitive performance, personality and gender. (Link)

• Resting brain metabolic correlates of neuroticism and extraversion in young men. (Link)

• Resting posterior minus frontal EEG slow oscillations is associated with extraversion and DRD2 genotype. (Link)

• Resting posterior versus frontal delta/theta EEG activity is associated with extraversion and the COMT VAL(158)MET polymorphism. (Link)

• Rostral anterior cingulate activity generates posterior versus anterior theta activity linked to agentic extraversion. (Link)

• Striatal response to favorite brands as a function of neuroticism and extraversion. (Link)

• Testing predictions from personality neuroscience. Brain structure and the big five. (Link)

• The complex minds of teenagers: neuroanatomy of personality differs between sexes. (Link)

• The influence of personality on neural mechanisms of observational fear and reward learning. (Link)

• The lateralized processing of affect in emotionally labile extraverts and introverts: central and autonomic effects. (Link)

• The P3 auditory event-related brain potential indexes major personality traits. (Link)

• The synchronization of spontaneous BOLD activity predicts extraversion and neuroticism. (Link)